** **

** **

This publication is no longer relevant. See the Russian version

** **

**We propose a new approach to the structure of radiation and substance. Shows a random quantum processes, the nature of inertia. Introduced physically understandable Planck critical object. Solved the problem of the perihelion of the planets. Unmarked problem horizon of the universe. Shows the physical essence of dark matter and dark energy.**

The study was based on the following premises:

1. Matter could not exist forever in the past.

2. Matter arose out of nothing with all the conservation laws.

3. The arise mechanism of matter from nothing is very simple.

4. This very simple mechanism should be the foundation of all physics.

Next was constructed symmetric vacuum picture of the world, which is based on the postulate of the existence of matter in two essence: positive and negative, which completely compensate each other and give the identical zero. The emergence of a world out of nothing and its structural development does not conflict with any of the conservation laws. Apparent violation of the law of causality can be easily removed, because before the matter did not exist and time. The mechanism of the origin and evolution of matter perturbations on the concept of the vacuum, which in two extreme cases, the changes in the concept of radiation and substance.

The perturbation is the heterogeneity of vacuum, which is characterized by an increase in pressure P at some point and the further spread of heterogeneity in the form of swelling of the ball, if we assume the vacuum state in the vicinity of point A homogeneous and isotropic with respect to the nature of heterogeneity. To comply with conservation laws introduced by this perturbation of the complete opposite - the dual disturbance, which compensates for all the features of this, but develops in the negative part of the Euclidean three-dimensional space. In essence, and that, and another - one of outrage, but the mathematical formalization forces us to consider this process as one of two simultaneous parts.

If P is a perturbation of the coordinates (x, y, z, t), then the coordinates of the dual perturbation P' should be regarded as (-x,-y,-z, t). For an observer at point A conjugate point A' can be represented uniquely in the form of a sphere of infinite radius centered at point A. Accordingly, for an observer at point A' A point is a sphere of infinite radius centered at A'. Now it is easy to show that if the law of decrease of density perturbations from the center to the periphery of the form

where L, m, n, k - are real numbers, and R - radius of the disturbance, then, with a clear case of conformal mapping, we can show that for an observer at A ball in the dual swelling indignation is collapsing sphere. Imaginary passage of this field "under the" positive part of space can be detected by the test mass or any other disturbance, but this is not a field in the form of particles or waves, that is, as they say, in the spirit of Faraday-Maxwell field is in the spirit of Einstein's . Such findings mean field result of general relativity.

Thus, having a single perturbation in the two parts of space, it should be noted that a special place in this painting is a meeting place for both parts of the disturbance, ie swelling and collapsing of the ball field. In general, this is a sphere, called the area of localization. At the time of the meeting at any point in the scope of localization and only on it may be a new outrage - a replica of the previous one. Perturbation of the vacuum in this form it is proposed that photon localization and the radius of the sphere - the Compton wavelength.

Assuming that in this way from point to point consistently arise photons, we can consider three cases.

** **

**1. The spread of a single photon**

If the photon is alone in the universe, its initial movement in space is random, ie dual image disturbance, which we agree to call its own gravitational field, only gives a signal to the reproduction of a photon, but does not define a point on the sphere of reproduction sites (this is one of the conclusions of general relativity: gravitating point does not interact with its gravitational field [1]).

Assume that we have been able to register a photon at a point A. In this case we can not say anything about his impulse.

** **

**2. The interaction of two photons**

Assume that there are two photons in the universe or any other gravitating objects so distant that their influence can be neglected. Let two photons A and B of the same frequency and phase are at the points a and b (Fig. 2, position 1) and are ready to reproduce. Since the gravitational field of the photon B at the point k on the sphere surface localization of the photon A is less than at point c, then the most likely to reproduce the photon should be regarded as a point c, as the closest to the photon V. Similar arguments hold for the choice of reproduction photon B.

Figure 2 shows the positions 2 and 3 show the stepwise movement of the photons to each other.

If the scope of localization of photons in the time of reproduction intersect, the point m (Fig. 2, item 4) should be considered the least likely to reproduce the perturbation, and the points e and f - the most likely. The detailed picture of the choice of reproduction will be discussed below.

Thus, the photons are reproduced again at the points e and f (Fig. 2, position 5). You'll notice that the system is stable and photons iteration will continue. Each component of the system is the speed of light, but in general the system can "stop" the choice of reference frame associated with the center of mass of the (point m in Figure 2, item 4).

It is proposed **stable system of photons** considered as a **substance**. Free photons - **radiation**.

** **

**3. The probabilistic picture of the interaction of photons**

Assume that at point A (Fig. 3) is ready to reproduce the photon, ie its gravitational field is blocked with all the space around the photon A at a distance. Let the photon is in the stage of development (swelling), and its gravitational field has not reached the areas of localization of photon A is .

In this case, the choice point of the reproduction of a photon does not and is due to an accident. Such processes are possible at small spatial scales, where quantum mechanics and work.

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** 4. The motion of a stable structure of the photons**

Let the substance, considered by us as a stable structure of the photon has a velocity V, a smaller C, in some coordinate system. Assume that the velocity vector V is perpendicular to the line connecting the centers of the photons. From Figure 4 shows how the stable structure of the photon can travel in space.

Considering time as the sum of the changes in the system, we can show that the vector** ** (Fig. 4) is a measure of proper time, and it decreases when the speed is increased.

The system, overclocked to the speed of light, cease to exist because photons, its components are no longer interact with each other, ie proper time of the system stops.

** **

Notice how Roger Penrose in his book "* The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe*" describes the electron in terms of quantum mechanics. He did call this model of zigzag-representation of the electron. But Penrose was unable to properly interpret and erroneously attributed to the phenomenon of the de Broglie frequency.

**5. Peculiarities in the behavior of substance and radiation in a gravitational field**

Laws governing the behavior of substance in a gravitational field have been extended to photons. However, substance and radiation behave in a gravitational field in different ways. Consider the classical problem of the deviation of light rays in a gravitational field of the Sun. Application of Newton's laws to photons obtained for a substance lead to the observed angle of the gravitational field of twice the theoretically predicted.

Since the photon in our constructions plays a major role, it is easier to consider his behavior in the gravitational field of the right. In other words, if the condition , that (Fig. 5).

In general, , where – angle between the velocity vector of the photon and the direction to the gravitating body.

Construct an element of the substance of two photons. Now try to run this item on the orbit of Mercury.

**Consider the two iteration phase.**

In the first phase in Figure 6 photons interpenetrate each other, and their centers are on - the distance of the gravitational radius. From this position the center of the photons move in the position of the second iteration, both the center shift toward a gravitating body (down) on the value . ** **This phase is responsible for the movement of matter in a closed orbit around a gravitating body.

Consider the second phase (Fig. 7), in which the centers of the photons are separated by a distance . Here, the mutual attraction of photons to each other by 13 orders of magnitude larger (shown below), rather than their interaction with the gravitating body.

For simplicity, we will remove the picture with a photon 1 and consider the forces acting on the photon 2, assuming that all arguments are valid for photon 1 (see below Figure 8).

**5.1. The second phase, which is responsible for the movement of the perihelion**

Here: - acceleration of gravity at the orbit altitude;

- the actual acceleration of free fall of a photon by gravitating body in this phase of interaction of a pair;

photon mass (hereafter refers to relativistic mass of photon);

Compton wavelength of a photon;

Planck's constant (not to be confused with ).

expression in the denominator appears because considering the distance between the centers of the photons. Proximity to gravitational radius is neglected.

Angle in the center of the photon can be calculated by two ways:

On the other hand , where - acceleration of gravity at the height of the orbit;

- real acceleration of the fall of the associated photon.

Equate tangents: , considering, that , get:

; considering, that , а , get:

must be expressed through - angle of perihelion shift.

Assuming the angle of the perihelion shift of Mercury is 43 seconds of arc per century, get:

**This is very typical of the results: the nucleons move in an orbit the nuclei of atoms - protons and neutrons.**

Assuming that the substance of Mercury is no different from other substances planets in the solar system and, basically, is also located in the nucleons of the nuclei, it is possible to solve the inverse problem - the problem of perihelion for the other planets.

Inverse problem for Venus gives perihelion angle equal to 9.95 seconds of arc per century, Earth's perihelion to be 5.18 arcseconds for Mars - 2.76 arcseconds. All these values are within the measurement error for displacement of the perihelion of the planets.

P.S. It is very likely that the number of photons in a particle determines its spin.

Photon - a particle - a single photon - spin 1. Boson.

Proton - a particle - two photons - the spin 1 / 2. Fermion.

**5.2. Estimate of the absolute velocity of the solar system**

In section 5.1 we stated that the nucleons move in an orbit the nuclei of atoms, which, generally speaking, normal: in the range of Compton wavelength and mass do not get any more particles. On the other hand, we did not expect to get a different result, because almost the entire mass of matter contained in the nucleons of the nuclei of atoms. However, the most expected result for the wavelength and the mass must lie in the interval between the values Compton wavelengths and masses of the proton and neutron.

It should be noted that the scheme, which we considered in 5.1, suggests that the absolute speed of photon pairs interconnected zero, or close to zero, compared to the speed of light. This means that in the passive phase of the photons do not touch each other (Fig. 7). By and large, we determined in 5.1 do not the Compton wavelength, and half the distance between the centers of the interacting photons in a pair of passive phase.

However, it is assumed that the substance that surrounds us has a nonzero absolute speed, which means that in the passive phase of the photons are partially interpenetrate each other, and the level of interpenetration determines the absolute velocity of the pair (see 11. Overclocking substance under a constant force of gravity).

On this basis we assume that the result obtained in 5.1 - do not the Compton wavelength, ie half the distance between the centers of pairs of photons , having non-zero absolute velocity (Ris.8.1). Compton wavelength of the expected result of 5.1 we assume that the arithmetic mean of the wavelength of the proton and neutron on Fig.8.1.

Then from Fig.8.1 shows that the absolute speed of the pair V determined by the formula , where - during one iteration of the pair.

Estimated absolute velocity of matter, such as the solar system is equal to 0.126 * C, where C - the speed of light.

What does this mean? If we assume*** that after the big bang stuff, mostly, fly away from the center, you should look for candidates for the center of the universe, given that the redshift of matter near the center corresponds to the rate we received.

*** However, the author adheres to the traditional view on the paradoxes of the Big Bang, and cosmological expansion of the universe.

** **

**6. Critical object**

Since the photon has been described as an object with a radius coinciding with the Compton wave length at the time of reproduction, the interest of such a photon, the radius of which coincides with his own gravitational radius.

To obtain the gravitational radius of the photon, we use the derivation of the escape velocity. What speed will gravitating particle on the surface of a photon, if it will fall from infinity? Obviously, this is the speed that we should begin gravitating particles on the surface of the photon, to bring it beyond the gravitational influence of the photon. Immediately make a reservation: to fall on a photon moving at the speed of light is quite difficult. I would like to stop the photon, but it would be incorrect action. Nevertheless, the object that we now imagine to stop himself.

We write the energy conservation law for the photon:

where the left side are the kinetic and potential energy on the surface of a photon (the potential energy is negative, as the reference point is taken to infinity), the right is the same, but at infinity (a body at rest on the border of the gravitational influence - the energy is zero).

*m* — photon mass,

* * — radius of the photon, it - the gravitational radius,

*G* — gravitational constant,

*С* — the speed of light, it is the same - escape velocity.

Solving with respect to * *, get: .

where, m – photon mass,

h – Planck's constant,

С – the speed of light,

and the expression for the gravitational radius , assuming , You can get the following values - radius of the photon and the Compton wavelength, - photon mass and * *- the lifetime of a photon from the origin of the perturbations to meet its sphere of localization of its gravitational field, or until replacement.

Previously, these quantities are constructed from dimensional considerations and can not be interpreted physically. Now the physical constants are the parameters of a physical object.

That could look like the law of gravity

In much of quantum laws can figure G - gravitational constant

Considering further the laws of physics, it is easy to make sure that they are all normalized to the characteristics of a K-object (so named this critical photon).

For example, the mass of any photon is always , where - Compton wavelength of a photon of arbitrary, *m* – its mass.

The energy of any photon is always ,

where - gravitational radius of the photon energy E, а .

As part of this concept is the most obvious meaning of the constants of gravitational and electromagnetic interactions.

Gravity – ratio of the squares of the masses, where - proton mass.

Electromagnetic - ratio of the squares of the charges, where - electron charge, - K-object pseudo-charge.

For each photon always have the equality.

Feature of the K-object is that its own gravitational field is conveniently situated close to his area of localization, but does not give the signal for reproduction. The object loses its ability to reproduce, and hence to the movement in space. With such an object can be associated absolute coordinate system.

The same conclusion was reached in the V.V. Korukhov "On the fundamental constants of nature" [2].

**7. Elementary black hole**

Let us try out two heavy photons of identical frequency and phase to construct a pair, thereby obtaining an element of substance. We already know that a couple can "stop", despite the fact that each pair of photons travel at the speed of light. Now try to learn the characteristics of the photons couple, which is a unit, fixed the "black hole".

To obtain the gravitational radius, we use a pair of derivation of the escape velocity. What speed will gravitating particle on the surface of the pair, if it will fall from infinity? Obviously, this is the speed that we should begin gravitating particles on the surface of the pair to bring it beyond the gravitational influence of this pair.

We write the energy conservation law for a bound pair of photons:

where the left side are the kinetic and potential energy surface of (potential energy is negative, as the reference point is taken to infinity), the right is the same, but at infinity (a body at rest on the border of the gravitational influence - the energy is zero). - mass of gravitating particles,

*m* — mass of a photon in the pair,

* * — radius of the photon in the pair, he is - the gravitational radius,

*G* — gravitational constant,

*С* — the speed of light, it is the same - escape velocity.

where, m – photon mass,

h – Planck's constant,

С – the speed of light,

and the expression for the gravitational radius , assuming , You can get the following values - radius of the pair and Compton wavelength of each photon, - photon mass и * *- period of reproduction of the pair.

This object is called Planck's E-object. It is more understandable from the classical point of view. The heavier material and fixed substance element of the photons we do not succeed.

** **

**8. The problem of dark matter**

Consider the problem of when a gravitating body is, for example, of the four not-in-phase photons , , and (Fig.9). At the same time ready for reproduction, and its gravitational field is located or from the center. The gravitational fields of the photons , and are, respectively, at distances ,and . Photon ready for reproduction. Note that the gravitational field of a photon not involved in gravitational interaction with . But if the photon was at *А**, *then it would impact only the gravitational field of a photon .

Assuming that the nucleons of matter evenly distributed over the phases, we can conclude that the gravitational interaction is involved only part of the nucleons. Moreover, with increasing distance between the gravitating masses increasing number of nucleons involved in the interaction.

We believe that the dark matter there is another component. Note that the photon under the influence of the gravitational field of a photon , but the photon much denser than, for example, . This means that more tightly and its gravitational field. This circumstance brings the addition of the dark matter.

**Dark matter - the phase correction to the gravitational field produced by baryonic substance.**

**9. Dark energy**

If the photon has a mass greater than the critical value, the localization of its scope expands, reaches a radius equal to the Compton wavelength. Of course, replicate and move in the space of an object can not. However, its gravitational field can be found at a considerable distance from him.

What happens with the photon - whether it is stable, if its size varies - does not matter. The important thing is that it contributes to the gravitational field of the universe. Photons, whose masses are a little more critical mass of the K-object, find its gravitational field at distances smaller than photons, whose masses are significantly greater than that of the K-object. These distances can be measured and astronomical units, and Mpc, and billions of light years away.

Supercritical objects in large quantities could be produced in the first instants of the Big Bang until the department of radiation from matter. Perhaps such objects are created and inside the star processes.

Supercritical objects have different frequencies, but the range of frequencies, of course, lies in the frequency, greater frequency of the critical object. It is logical to assume that in each individual, a small frequency range contains the number of objects equal to the number of objects in any other, the same small range of frequencies. In other words, the objects are uniformly distributed over the frequency range.

Within a small frequency range of supercritical objects, of course, and evenly distributed in phase. Consider the effect of supercritical five objects of the same frequency but different phases, lying close to each other in the phase range to, say, a proton in the active iterations, each photon is ready to reproduce. (Fig. 10)

The gravitational field of the object 1 is supercritical swept volume of the proton, but it also captures part of the gravitational field of the object 2, is in a nascent stage. It is also partly capture the proton its gravitational field sites 3, 4 and 5. The result is that at point A total sphere of localization of the proton gravitational field is smaller than at point B, which is farther from gravitating objects supercritical.

**10. The inertial properties of matter**

**10.1. The inertial properties of the radiation**

The question arises about what happens to the photon after the time of reproduction. Require the disappearance of the scope of the location and disturbance naive. Simply put, that the disturbance continues to expand at light speed and gradually "smeared" in space. Thus, for the photon is deliquescent expanding plume of 'old' photons. We call this plume wake.

Consider the wake of a free photon. Assume that the photon originated at a point A (Fig. 11). The reasons for its occurrence at this point do not see and believe that he alone in the universe. When the field reached the value of photon localization , photon randomly reproduced at , and remains localized areas continued to expand at light speed. At a time when the radius of the newly formed at the point photon has reached a size , remnants of the scope of localization - wake - the previous implementation of the photon at the point are from this point at a distance, and the scope of photon localization contact with it at the point . In our opinion the wake of the implementation influence the choice of the point of reproduction of the photon and the most likely to be considered a point , because the density wake in it is minimal compared to other points in the field of localization.

Similar arguments hold for the choice of reproduction of the photon , It should be noted that the most likely point for the reproduction of the implementation of the photon contact for three areas: the scope of photon localization , wake of the photon and wake of a photon , reached at this point radius .

Thus, the wake of the photon has a direct impact on the preservation of its own momentum.

**10.2. The inertial properties of substance**

* *

**The transition from passive to active phase**

Consider the stable structure of the photons in the point O at rest and active phase (dashed circle in Figure 12). We must remember that this is not one, but two photons with the centers, distant from each other by a distance equal to the total gravitational radius. Suppose that in this, and only at that moment (the moment of willingness to reproduction) in a stable structure acted a certain force F, which forced the play back photons at points O1 and O2. The center of mass of the system shifted to the point A.

Vector – vector velocity of the system , where t – during one iteration of the stable structure of the photon or , where – Compton wavelength of a stable structure of the photons (substance), and С – the speed of light.

Our task - to see how the system would behave if further iterations are no forces on it will not work.

Photons O1 and O2 are ready to reproduce. Pay attention to the intersection of spheres of photons. If you own gravitational field has come close to the location of each photon, then the intersection of the spheres of the gravitational field of the photon localization of D1 can not determine the point of reproduction for the photon, O2, and yet it is central to the choice of this point.

The same can be said about the influence of the gravitational field of the photon point selection O2 O1 reproduction of a photon. Its simply not in the intersection areas of localization of photons.

Then the most likely points of reproduction should be regarded as a point O and O3. But, considering that the remnants of the photons in the form of continued expansion wake the speed of light and expanded from a point O on the distance (large circle), it should be noted that at the point on the density of the wake is much higher than at D3. Therefore, for both photons most likely point of reproduction is the point O3. The vector – vector velocity of the system , where t – during one iteration of the system. That is the system's speed has not changed.

**The transition from passive to active phase**

Consider the next iteration to determine whether to change the speed of the system in the absence of forces acting on it (Fig. 13). The active phase centered at O3. There are two photons, the photons from the reproduced with centers O1 and O2. Two large circles with centers at these same points - wake to the time evolution of disturbances at A3 with a radius equal to , had spread to a radius .

Photons centered at O3 ready to reproduce. No external forces. Yet the scope of localization of photons do not coincide with each other. Between the centers of very small distance, a distance equal to the total mass of the system and the defect pattern (qualitative) there is a (Fig. 14).

Delta is so small that for photons with equal probability reproduction virtually anywhere on the side of its hemisphere, not immersed in the other photon. But there are specific points of O4 and O5 (Fig. 13), in which photons are ready to reproduce touch the boundary of the wake of the photons O1 and O2. Moreover, it is the point of lowest density wake. And they should be regarded as the most likely to arise the next iteration of the photons. It can be shown that the point O6 - center of mass of the next iteration of photons - a point equidistant from O3 - center of mass of the previous iteration - a distance equal AO3 = O3O6. Consequently, in this case, the speed of the system is preserved.

We believe that this is the **inertial properties of substance**.

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**11. Dispersal of a substance under a constant force of gravity**

Let the element of substance stays in phase with the center of mass at O and has a travel speed V (Fig. 15). Body under gravity accelerates substance which element lies in the positive axis OY in conventionally infinite distance from the point O. For the active substance iteration photons are an addition to speed and must move a distance equal to, where - acceleration of gravity at the gravitating body, and - time of one iteration or time of photons of a pair of points on a radius equal to the Compton wavelength.

If the velocity of the pair along the OY axis is small, the center of mass of the pair with a high degree of accuracy has moved a distance equal to . But in the case shown in the figure, the velocity of the object is about half the speed of light, and the point A, which should have the right to move the photon pair is outside the scope of localization. We believe that in this case, the point of the reproduction right of the photon pair should be considered as a point of intersection of OA and scope of the localization of the photon.

this system of equations allows to find a point of intersection of OA with a circle O.

Substitute it into the second equation

Thus, y - the distance that will move the center of mass system for the active iteration.

**Now consider the passive phase of the movement of the pair** (Fig. 16).

Compare the angles and : where - angle between the vector and the horizontal axis of the coordinate and – angle between the vector sum .

If , is valid only inertia anddoes not provide velocity increment in the passive phase, when, you need to find a point of intersection O'A 'scope and O'. It is easy to see that the intersection point lies above the point of intersection of the spheres of localization pairs, which means that its y coordinate and indicate the increment of speed.

; , where – acceleration due to gravity of photons at each other in terms of interpenetration. Here- density of the photon, and - distance between the photons.

Shifts the coordinate center of origin to the point O '.

From the first equation of the circle . Substitute it into the second equation.

On this site the speed range close to the speed of light, in turn passive dispersal phase iteration pair. We do not give here the numerical value of the velocity supplementation, for unknown- acceleration due to gravity of photons at each other in terms of interpenetration. **We believe that the uncontrolled acceleration of the proton beam in the LHC is just such a nature**.

**12. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics**

As you know, physics rather skeptical about the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, which was an attempt to justify its probabilistic approach. Criticism Copenhagen interpretation made by Einstein, Schrodinger, Dirac, Lau, Bohm, Blokhintsev, etc. In fact, the interpretation does not reject the determinism of microphysics as long as no measurement made. That's what about this pisaya Dirac: "When measured over a dynamic system, its state is changing in unpredictable ways, but in the period between the measurements of causality holds in quantum mechanics as well as in the classical and the system obeys the equations of motion that allow for state at a time uniquely determine the state at subsequent times. They (the equations of motion VP) remain valid for as long as the result of measurement or similar process happens perturbations of the system. "[3]. However, the instrument-measuring device is none other than the same quantum mechanical system, and strictly deterministic, by Dirac. If so, then the two deterministic systems, combined into one, give the probable result. The inclusion of an observer in this system does not simplify the question of what elements of a quantum mechanical system "object + apparatus + observer" brings in an element of randomness.

Thus, the difficulties of understanding probability description of the processes in quantum mechanics is in doubt and in the Fathers of the Copenhagen interpretation. Here is one of the sayings of Dirac: "We believe that we have followed the path of the logical development of ideas of quantum mechanics in their modern sense as far as possible. Counter difficulties because of their profound nature, can be eliminated only a radical change in basic theory, is probably as radical as the transition from the theory of Bohr orbits to modern quantum mechanics. "(4).

As shown, in terms of our approach, randomness is inherent in most quantum-mechanical system, and the Cauchy problem at the level of microphysics can not be solved fundamentally.

** **

**13. Irreversibility of physical processes**

It has long been observed that many physical laws are invariant under change of sign of the time. The reversibility of physical processes in time and now under discussion. Approach outlined in this paper, this question gives an unequivocal answer: the physical processes are irreversible in time. In fact, look at Figure 3, which shows the picture of the interaction probability of photons. Suppose that a photon, ready for reproduction, until his appearance at point A was at some point C, which is not hard to see, is on the field of localization of the photon. There, in the field of localization will be located and point B, in which the photon is randomly be reproduced. Running time back, we can not demand that the photon from B was in A, and then in C because at A reproduction of the photon is random.

Conscious of the fact that all of the physical processes at work kvatovomehanicheskom level, we can conclude the global nature of irreversibility in time all natural processes.

**14. The problem of the horizon of the universe**

This is one of the problems arising from the uniform distribution of the IFIs. According to the hypothesis about the nature of the relict MFI, it was formed when the universe consisted of 300 thousand years. While the objects that were deleted from each other by more than 300 thousand light-years have not been reported with each other, as the fastest means of communication - a light beam - could cover the distance. On the other hand the uniformity of the background radiation suggests that these distant objects characterized by very similar physical laws, structure and behavior.

Quasi-instantaneous current gravitational field eliminates the problem of the horizon of the universe.

**15. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox**

Einstein article, written in 1935 jointly with the Polish and an assistant of Einstein - Rosen, considered the most important contribution of Einstein to quantum mechanics. It discusses the "ghost" at a distance. The fact that the formal application of quantum mechanics to a quantum mechanical system, it found the objects, the relationship between them does not depend on time. The paradox was entirely attributed to the imperfection of the apparatus of quantum mechanics. According to Einstein, he pointed out its fundamental internal contradictions. However, in 1949, such superluminal interactions were observed in the experiments of Wu, and later in other experiments, the experimenters, for example, laboratory experiments in the Bell in 1987.

Experience is usually illustrated by Wu's case. Two photons (gamma ray), produced in the annihilation of an electron and a positron, scattered in the opposite side and fell to the devices, modulators, which are determined by the photon polarization vector. In the immediate vicinity of the modulator in the path of a photon polarizer was placed, which turned the plane of polarization of this photon. Cost to turn the plane of polarization of the selected photon, both immediately and synchronously rotates the polarization plane of the other.

As part of our approach, the EPR paradox can find a simple interpretation, such as the interaction of photons through the gravitational fields.

**16. Quantum Dirac sea**

In the Dirac equation, which describes the relativistic quantum mechanics of electrons, there are solutions corresponding to negative values of the energy of a free electron. The fact that Einstein's relativistic dynamics of the electron energy E is related to its momentum by the relation

but included here may have two root sign, and drop the negative sign on the mathematical considerations in the quantum theory can not. So there are two values of the continuum electron energy: from the top and bottom with . Both the continuum are separated by an energy gap, a width of .

In terms of the classical interpretation of quantum mechanics, the existence of the lower continuum is meaningless, because the electrons in the upper states of the continuum, would go over into lower-lying states with negative energy, and they sank to lower and lower, because continuum of negative energy has no lower limit. Such a transition would be accompanied by a continuous release of energy. To prevent these transitions, we must assume that the entire continuum of negative-energy states completely filled with electrons. Then, by virtue of the Pauli principle, under which a quantum mechanical state can not be more than one electron, the electron transitions to states with negative energy will become impossible.

Such a skewed distribution of responsibilities between the continua is not a decoration of quantum theory. In terms of our approach, there are states with negative energy of each photon and the system of photons, and the negative root of the Dirac equation, as well as negative values of length and weight, get their physical interpretation.

**Literature**

1. A. Einstein, Collected Works Vol. Volume 1, 1965

2. Korukhov V. On the nature of the fundamental constants / / Methodological basis for the development and implementation of integrated development programs in the region, Novosibirsk, 1988,. 59

3. P. Dirac Principles of Quantum Mechanics. - M., Home Edition physical and mathematical literature, 1979.

4. Zel'dovich Ya.B., Novikov ID Structure and Evolution of the Universe. - Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1985.

5. Dolgov AD, Zeldovich Ya.B., Sazhin MV Early universe cosmology. - Moscow, Moscow Publishing House. Press, 1988.

6. Girina Z. Symmetrical Physics and Greek Ancient Philosophy. Second International Congress «Cosmos and Philosophy», Bulgaria, Kardjali, 15-18 may, 1990, p.111.

7. Petrov V. The Philosophical Basis of SVT. Second International Congress «Cosmos and Philosophy», Bulgaria, Kardjali, 15-18 may, 1990, p.119.

8. Petrov V. On the quantum gravity. Collection of reports on the I-Union seminar "New ideas and alternative views in cosmology", Samara, 1991, p.111.

9.V.Petrov - I.Borisov, Some more «absurd» pondering about absurd nature, ACTES DU XIX^{E} CONGRES «COSMOS ET PHILOSOPHIE», ATHENES, 5-7 OCTOBRE 2010, p.44

**Victor Petrov, Samara Astrophysics Laboratory, 2011**

Undeniably believe that which you stated. Your favorite reason appeared to be on the web the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while people consider worries that they plainly do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks